'''Hippolyte Adolphe Taine''' (21 April 1828 – 5 March 1893) was a French critic
. He was the chief theoretical influence of French Naturalism (philosophy)|naturalism
, a major proponent of sociological positivism
and one of the first practitioners of Historicism|historicist
criticism. Literary historicism as a critical movement has been said to originate with him.
[Kelly, R. Gordon (1974). "Literature and the Historian", ''American Quarterly'', Vol. 26, No. 2, 143.]
Taine is particularly remembered for his three-pronged approach to the contextual study of a work of art, based on the aspects of what he called "race, milieu, and moment".
Taine had a profound effect on French literature
; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica|1911 ''Encyclopædia Britannica''
asserted that "the tone which pervades the works of Émile Zola|Zola
, Paul Bourget|Bourget
and Guy de Maupassant|Maupassant
can be immediately...